The most peculiar socio-cultural characteristic of the study area is that it has been inhabited exclusively by Maya people. Maya history of the last five centuries speaks of wars defending their cultural identity and natural resources after colonization; a history made of long crisps, bloody rebellions, of social and territorial remoteness that has lead the population to an impotent and resignation attitude.
Inhabitants of this region are left in socioeconomic remoteness: most Maya live in huts made of local materials, unpaved; with walls made of wood trunks, and thatched roofs. The main activity is the traditional slash and burn agriculture that lacks productivity and does not allow natural resources renovation.
The majority of the people speak only Maya and kids learn Spanish at school; high school is the highest level of education in most parts of the study area; resulting in narrow possibilities and perspectives for the population.
The high demographic index, low educational level, soil pressure without the proper technical knowledge, migration to other parts of the Yucatan Peninsula, are causes of cultural conflict in the region that become more and more complex. In one hand, indigenous communities keep their traditions and the attachment to the land that constitutes the main individual and collective life sustain; in the other, introduction of elements of other cultures will hardly help them stimulate their own development, since they differ quite much from the cultural values of their own tradition.